• Java design pattern is a standard approach in any software testing outsourcing company to resolve a recurring problem which saves time if we sensibly use the design pattern. If design patterns are already defined, then it makes the code easy to be understood and debug. It leads to the faster development and any new member of team can understand it easily.

    There are many java design patterns that can be used in our java based projects which are divided into three categories – Creational, Structural, and Behavioral design patterns.

    Creational design patterns: It is a category which provides the solution to incorporate an object in the best possible way for distinct situations.

    1. Factory pattern: Factory design pattern is implemented when there is a superclass with multiple sub-classes and based on its input, we have to return one of the sub-class.
    2. Abstract factory pattern: It is a pattern of a single Factory class, which returns the different sub-classes based on the input provided and the factory class uses if-else or switch statements to accomplish this.
    3. Builder pattern: Builder pattern was established to solve the problems with Factory and Abstract Factory design patterns when any object accommodates a lot of attributes.
    4. Prototype pattern: It is a pattern which is used when the Object creation is getting costly and need a lot of time and resources. If we have a similar object already existing, then we can copy the original object to a new object and can be modified based on our requirements.

      Structural design patterns: It is a category which provide a different ways to create the class structure, like, using inheritance and composition to create a large object out of the small objects.
      1. Adapter pattern: This design pattern is among one of the structural design patterns which is used to make sure that two unrelated interfaces can work together.
      2. Composite pattern: This pattern is among one of the Structural design patterns and which is used in the case wherein we have to represent a part-whole hierarchy. When you need to create a structure in a manner that the objects in the structure needs to be treated the same way.
      3. Proxy pattern: This pattern is used to “Provide a surrogate or placeholder for another object to control the access to it”. So basically it is used when you want to provide controlled access of a functionality.
      4. Flyweight pattern: This design pattern is required when we have to create a lot of Objects of a class. The flyweight design pattern is applied to reduce the load on memory by sharing the objects.
      5. Facade pattern: This Pattern is used to assist client applications to interact easily with the system. Let's say, you have an application with a set of interfaces in order to use MySql/Oracle database and to generate various types of reports, such as PDF report, HTML report, etc, So you will have a different set of interfaces to interact with different types of databases
      6. Bridge pattern : This is the pattern, when we have interface hierarchies in both, interfaces and implementations, then this pattern is used to disassociate the interfaces from implementation and hiding the implementation details from the client programs.
      7. Decorator pattern: This design pattern is required to modify the functionality of an object at runtime. At the similar time, other instances of the same class won't be affected by this, so respective object gets the modified behavior.

      Behavioral design patterns: This category patterns provides solution for better interaction between the objects and the way to provide lose coupling and flexibility to extend it easily.
      1. Template method pattern: This method pattern is a behavioral design pattern and being used to create a method stub and deferring few of the steps of implementation to the subclasses. This method defines the steps to execute the algorithm and it provides a default implementation which might be common for all or for some of the subclasses.
      2. Mediator pattern: This design pattern is being used to provide a consolidated communication medium between various objects in the system. The mediator design pattern can be very helpful in the enterprise application where multiple objects are interacting with each other.
      3. Chain of responsibility pattern: This pattern is being used to achieve the flexible coupling in the software design where a request from the client is passed over to a chain of objects in order to process them.
      4. Observer pattern: This design pattern is being used when we are interested in the state of an object and want to be notified whenever there is any updation.
      5. Visitor pattern: This pattern is being used wherein you have to perform an operation in the group of similar type of Objects. With the assistance of a visitor pattern, you can move the operational logic from the objects to another class.
      6. Momento pattern: This design pattern is being used wherein you want to save the state of an object so that, it can be restored later on. Memento pattern is being used in order to implement it in such a way that the saved state data of an object is not accessible to the outside of an object, which protects the saved state data.

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