• Java Database Connectivity i.e. JDBC is known as Java API which is commonly used to connect java language with variety of databases separately in software testing outsourcing. JDBC act as a Java API that connect with the database and execute the query. It is a major component of Java Standard Edition (JavaSE).

    Below mentioned are the two major components of JDBC used commonly :

    1. JDBC API: JDBC API is a programming interface for database application developers.
    2. JDBC Driver API: JDBC Driver API is a lower-level programming interface that consist of specific drivers used in databases.

    Following are the interfaces and classes that JDBC API is consists of:

    Interfaces: Connection, Statement, PreparedStatement, DatabaseMetaData, CallableStatement, ResultSet, and ResultSetMetaData.

    Classes: DriverManager, SQLException, Blob, Clob, Types etc.

    DriverManager is the major element of JDBC used as a concrete Java class. The other components are Java interfaces which are implemented by the several driver packages.

    DriverManager: The DriverManager class keeps track of the available JDBC drivers and creates database connections for the user. Although the JDBC driver itself creates the database connection, user usually go through the DriverManager to get the connection. That way user never need to deal with the actual driver class.

    Driver:  It handles the interaction with server and user rarely communicate directly with the Driver objects. Instead, DriverManager objects are used to manages objects of this type.

    Connection: Communication is established and maintained with database is through connection object only.

    Statement: Objects created from this interface are being used by user for submitting the SQL statements to the database.

    ResultSet: These objects hold results retrieved from a database after user executes a SQL query using Statement objects. Using this object we can iterate through its data.

    SQLException: Class responsible to handle any errors that occur in a database application is SQLException class.

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